is the Japanese reading of chan (Chinese: 禅）, which is the transliteration of jhāna (Pali, the language preserving the traditional Buddhism as the Triple Baskets), dhyāna (Sanskrit). It usually means meditation, in profound concentration and especially in nirvana (no-wind, of karma). As the four stages of meditation shows the ultimate state is nirvana. So, Zen aims at nirvana and from this vantage point practitioners apply it in their thinking and acting in their daily living.
Four Stages of Meditation (zen: jhâna: dhyâna)
|1st stage||o(extant)||o||o||o||o||Five coverings [lust-desire (kâma-chanda),covetousness-malevolence (abhijjhâ-vyâpâda), sloth-drowsiness (thîna-middha), agitation-worry (uddhacca-kukkucca), doubt (vikicchâ)ceased.|
|2nd stage||x(extinct)||o||o||o||o||Four leaks[lust (kâma), becoming (bhava), view (ditthi), nescience (avijjâ) ceased.|
|4th stage||x||x||x||x||o||equipoise, mind freed, no birth, nirvana|